Submitted in response to written requests from the Inquiry, usually providing lists of questions to be answered. In most cases these formed the basis of questioning in public sessions, but in some cases they were read into the record (or taken as read) and the witness did not appear in person.
Given by witnesses invited by the Inquiry, normally after they have made written statements. These sessions could be viewed live online and sometimes on television news services, and the video recordings are part of the archive. The statements were usually released to the public after the public sessions.
At the time of the Inquiry, Battle was Head of Compliance at Independent Television News (ITN), having worked as a lawyer in broadcasting since 2001. He previously worked at the Daily Mail, Mail on Sunday and Today newspapers.
A journalist and broadcaster, Diamond was, at the time of the Inquiry, a regular columnist at the Daily Mail and co-host of Good Morning Britain. Diamond gave evidence of invasive scrutiny by the press of her private life, including stories which were the subject of libel actions against national newspapers – in particular, The Sun. Diamond gave evidence of being hounded by paparazzi and invasive reporting of private grief when she suffered the bereavement of a child.
Broadcaster. Joined TV Current Affairs at BBC in 2013 from ITN, where he had worked since 1997, initially as Deputy Editor of Channel 4 News, and then as Editor. Gave comprehensive evidence on the procedures, policies and staff guidelines governing ITN's provision of news to Channel 4. "Our purpose as the producers of a public-service broadcast news for Channel 4 is to deliver original journalism and analysis, and to hold those in power to account," he said.
Satirist, journalist, Private Eye editor and broadcaster. Told the Inquiry that his publication was against regulation. The activities in focus at the Inquiry, such as phone hacking, contempt of court and police taking money, were all already illegal, he said. What was required was enforcement of existing laws. "The secret of investigative journalism is people ring you up and tell you things," he told the Inquiry (quoting his old friend Paul Foot).
Author, journalist, broadcaster. Gave evidence as Chief Executive of Index on Censorship at the time of the Inquiry. Freedom of expression was as important as press freedom, he said. "Reporting is no longer the exclusive reserve of the mainstream but also of independent bloggers and whistleblowing sites."
Broadcaster and former politician. Served as MP for Putney from 1979 to 1997, and was John Major’s Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 1990 to 1992 and Secretary of State for National Heritage from April 1992 until resigning later that year. The tabloid press had reported his extra-marital affair and his preference for wearing a Chelsea shirt. He told the Inquiry, “All you will remember about me when I go to my grave is some bloody Chelsea shirt." Mellor said he had been initially persuaded by the Prime Minister not to resign since the PM did not want extra-marital affairs to become resignation issues. After leaving Parliament, Mellor worked as a newspaper columnist, radio presenter and Chair of the Government's Football Task Force.
British journalist, broadcaster and, at the time of giving evidence, editor of The Sun newspaper. Mohan was instrumental in the Live 8 charity concert, having conceived the idea of re-recording Band Aid’s "Do They Know It's Christmas?" in 2004. Mohan told the Inquiry that The Sun took the PCC code very seriously and that the News International staff handbook was a comprehensive guide to the behaviour expected of Sun journalists.
British journalist and television personality. Morgan began his journalism career in Fleet Street as a writer and editor for several tabloid papers, including The Sun, the News of the World and the Daily Mirror. In 1994, he was appointed editor of the News of the World by Rupert Murdoch. He later edited the Daily Mirror, and was in charge during the period that the paper was implicated in the phone-hacking scandal. He told the Inquiry that he took ethics very seriously and was then questioned on the ethics of paying for and publishing details of the discarded bank statements of Elton John.
Born 1960. British author, journalist and broadcaster. He is the associate editor of The Spectator and former chief political commentator of The Daily Telegraph, from which he resigned in early 2015. He writes a political column for the Daily Mail and Middle East Eye and won the Press Awards Columnist of the Year in 2012 and again in 2016.
British broadcaster, journalist and author. Question master of University Challenge and former presenter of Newsnight. He told the Inquiry that he found it easier not to have politicians as personal friends and described a lunch at which Piers Morgan told him how to hack a voicemail.
Designated a Core Participant at the Inquiry, Rowland was a claimant in the litigation against News International regarding phone hacking. He told the Inquiry he had been shown evidence that someone had attempted to hack his voicemails 100 times in 2005, when he had been working for the Mail on Sunday and the Times. At the time of the Inquiry, he had been a journalist or freelance writer for 30 years, having written for the Daily Telegraph, Evening Standard and The Times. Had also worked as a TV presenter and author.
Born 1980. Scottish broadcaster, former editor of The Scottish Sun. Smart became Deputy Editor of The Sun before leaving in 2016 to follow a career in radio broadcasting. Gave evidence concerning two fake stories planted as a hoax on The Sun which he had published.
The presenter of Channel 4 News, Snow strongly criticised the publishers of the Daily Mail for what he saw as an agenda to undermine people in public life, giving personal testimony of a five-page article in the Mail on Sunday about his private life. The paper had admitted it was untrue but devoted only one and a half inches to the apology. Channel 4 News did not seek to influence policy, he said.
The elected president of the International Federation of Journalists at the time of the Inquiry and also an Executive member of the National Union of Journalists. Gave evidence of a variety of Media Accountability Systems that operated around the world including those underpinned by legislation and those that are entirely voluntary.
Writer and former journalist at the Sunday Mirror, Clarkson left the tabloid world in 1987 and has since written several true-crime novels and featured in documentaries about the criminal gangland and underworld. Told the Inquiry that he had never used private investigators. When he was working as a journalist, he said, reporters had openly talked to the police and would probably pay around £50 to a policeman for "help" with a story.
Director-General of the BBC from January 2000 to January 2004, a position from which he resigned following heavy criticism of the BBC's news-reporting process in the Hutton Inquiry (into the circumstances surrounding the death of David Kelly). Credited with introducing 'tabloid' television to British broadcasting and reviving the ratings of TV-am. Held chief executive positions at LWT Group, Pearson Television and Channel 5. Gave evidence to the Inquiry of the ethical procedures in place during his time as Director-General including the use of hired investigators and undercover operators.
Research Professor in Media and Politics at the University of Bedfordshire, Professor of Political Journalism at City, University of London and Emeritus Professor of Broadcast Journalism at Goldsmiths, University of London at time of giving evidence. Sought to address the question of the nature of media influence on public policy in areas such as criminal justice and immigration.
Broadcaster. Since 1987, a presenter on the BBC Radio 4 programme Today. He told the Inquiry that his role as presenter prevented him from commenting on any matters of current controversy. On media ownership, he thought it important that there was not a monopoly but made clear he would not comment on whether News International, for example, was too powerful.
Gave evidence as Political Editor of the Sunday Mirror. From 1995, he had been a political correspondent at the House of Commons, working for a news agency supplying stories to regional agencies around the country before becoming Sunday Mirror Political Editor in 2000. Told the Inquiry that he had always worked within the Press Complaints Commission (PCC) Code, had never paid private investigators, but had occasionally sought expenses for paying freelance journalists. Reported the circumstances in which he felt concerns over misuse of taxpayers' money could over-ride concerns for an MP's privacy. He left his position in 2015 and was described as a "formidable scoop merchant" and "real gentleman".
British journalist, broadcaster and former editor of The Sunday Times, 1983-94. Presenter of live political programmes including BBC’s This Week and Daily Politics. Former editor-in-chief and chairman of the Press Holdings group. Neil offered the Inquiry his views on the lobby system and the necessarily partisan nature of the UK Press as exemplified by the relationship between Rupert Murdoch and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.