Submitted in response to written requests from the Inquiry, usually providing lists of questions to be answered. In most cases these formed the basis of questioning in public sessions, but in some cases they were read into the record (or taken as read) and the witness did not appear in person.
Given by witnesses invited by the Inquiry, normally after they have made written statements. These sessions could be viewed live online and sometimes on television news services, and the video recordings are part of the archive. The statements were usually released to the public after the public sessions.
Gave evidence on behalf of the National Union of Journalists, of which he was a past-President and a long-standing National Executive Committee member at the time of the hearing. A former newspaper journalist and Head of Journalism at Liverpool John Moores University, whose research interests have included media ethics, he also served on the UK Press Council and as a long-term member of the NUJ Ethics Council.